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Lili - Heft 143



Thema: Spracherwerb: generativ - interaktiv

Herausgeber dieses Heftes:
Rita Franceschini, Gudrun Ziegler und Natascha Müller




Inhalt

Gudrun Ziegler, Rita Franceschini und Natascha Müller
Spracherwerb: generativ - interaktiv. Einleitung - Introduction

Antje Pillunat, Katrin Schmitz und Natascha Müller
Die Schnittstelle Syntax-Pragmatik: Subjektauslassungen bei bilingual deutsch-französisch aufwachsenden Kindern
The Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Subject Omissions in Bilingual German/French Children

Gudrun Ziegler
Determination und Referenz im frühen L2 Erwerb Französisch
Determiners and Reference Processes in Early L2 Acquisition

Ewa Lenart et Clive Perdue
Acquisition des procedures de determination nominale dans le recit: une analyse fonctionnaliste et comparative
Acquisition of Means for Nominal Reference in Narratives: A Functionalist and Comparative Analysis

Giuliano Bernini
Strategie di lessicalizzazione: tipologia e apprendimento. Il caso dei verbi di moto
Lexicalisation Strategies: Typology and Acquisition. The Case of Motion Verbs

Rita Franceschini, Gudrun Ziegler, Natascha Müller
Coda: Ausblick auf eine >blended theory< in der Erforschung des Spracherwerbs
Coda

Labor

Manfred Kern
Welt aus Fugen. Textuelle Heterogenität in der mittelalterlichen Weltchronistik am Beispiel Rudolfs von Ems
A World of Joins and Seams. Textual Heterogeneity in the Universal Chronicle of the Middle Ages, as Exemplified by Rudolf von Ems

Eugenio Spedicato
Friedrich Dürrenmatts Kriminalroman Das Versprechen (1958) und Sean Penns Thriller THE PLEDGE (2001). Eine transmediale Analyse
Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Das Versprechen (1958) and Sean Penn's THE PLEDGE (2001). A Transmedial Analysis

Heiko Christians
Der verweigerte Bildungsroman. Amok zwischen Avantgarde, Genre und Ritual
The rejected Bildungsroman. Amuck as Avant-Garde, Genre and Ritual

Ute Dettmar und Thomas Küpper
Der gute Ton im Mozart-Jahr
Hitting the Right Note in the Mozart Year






 

Gudrun Ziegler, Rita Franceschini, Natascha Müller

Einleitung - Spracherwerb: generativ - interaktiv

Ziel des Themenheftes ist es, einige zentrale theoretische Rahmen zum Erwerb zweier Sprachen anhand von exemplarischen Analysen gegenüberzustellen und ausgehend von aktuell diskutierten Problembereichen beim Spracherwerb deren Bezugspunkte herauszuarbeiten.

Zur Frage, weshalb diese Zusammenschau gerade zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt angemessen erscheint, ist anzumerken, dass sich über die sich abzeichnenden Schnittstellen hinaus derzeit eine höchst aufschlussreiche Korpuslage bietet: Daten, die den frühen (simultanen oder leicht verzögerten) kindlichen Erstspracherwerb dokumentieren, können mit ebenso neuartigen Daten aus dem frühkindlichen schulischen Zweitspracherwerb verglichen und nicht zuletzt auf ungesteuerte Erwerbskontexte im Erwachsenenalter bezogen werden. In der Tat beziehen neuere Analysen, die aus einer nativistischen Perspektive insbesondere dem Ausbau der Syntax im Bereich der Nominalphrase gewidmet sind, verstärkt pragmatische Bedingtheiten der Syntaxentwicklung mit ein. Interaktionistisch ausgerichtete Arbeiten, welche sich zentral für die Gestaltung von Referenz im Erwerbsprozess interessieren, widmen sich dem Einfluss von grammatischen Entwicklungen im Bereich nominaler und determinierender Strukturen und Elemente. Schließich zeigen Arbeiten im funktionalistischen Paradigma für den Bereich der Verbalphrase, dass morphosyntaktische und satzsemantische Aspekte nicht unabhängig von einander betrachtet werden können, soll der Erwerbsprozess angemessen beschrieben werden.

Zwei ansonsten konträre Sichtweisen, welche auch in ganz unterschiedliche sprachwissenschaftliche Theorien eingebettet sind, scheinen sich im Bereich der Nominalphrasensyntax und -semantik anzunähern und Erklärungen für den Erwerbsverlauf zu erarbeiten, welche nicht nur nebeneinander koexistieren, sondern aufeinander aufbauen und aus beiden Perspektiven eine einzige, aber umfassende Analyse der Erwerbsdaten liefern. Die beiden - von den genannten Analyseperspektiven gleichermaßen identifizierten - Problembereiche des interdiskursiven bzw. intra-diskursiven Nominalphrasen- bzw. Verbalphrasenausbaus - werden im Rahmen von Beispielanalysen gemäß den genannten Ansätzen dargelegt. Die Voraussetzungen sowie das Vorgehen der einzelnen Analyseperspektiven werden dabei ebenso diskutiert wie die Grenzen und die mögliche Öffnung des jeweiligen Ansatzes (hin zu anderen) anhand des spezifischen Problembereichs. Ohne den Autorinnen und Autoren vorzugreifen, sei die Chronologie der vorliegenden Beiträge kurz erläutert.

Die 'jüngste' Form des Erwerbs zweier Sprachen wird von Antje Pillunat, Katrin Schmitz und Natascha Müller am Beispiel bilingual deutsch-französisch aufwachsender Kinder diskutiert. Die Autorinnen stellen sich - aus generativistischer Sicht - der Frage, in welchen Bezug Subjektauslassungen in diesem Erwerbsprofil an der Schnittstelle von Syntax und Pragmatik zu bringen sind. Der Emergenz von nominalen Determinationsprozessen im Spannungsfeld von Grammatik und Interaktion in der Lehr-Lern-Interaktion des frühen Zweitspracherwerb (Französisch) diskutiert Gudrun Ziegler, wobei diese, erst neuerlich verstärkt ins Blickfeld geratende Erwerbsform als Schnittstelle derzeit bereits umfassender dokumentierter Erwerbsverläufe im Vergleich ausgewiesen wird. In anderer Weise vergleichend diskutieren Ewa Lenart und Clive Perdue die verschiedenen Verfahren der Determination, wie sie in Erzählungen von Lernern (Französisch) verschiedener Erwerbsprofile zum Ausdruck kommen bzw. sich aufeinander aufbauend entwickeln. Schließlich zeigt der Beitrag von Giuliano Bernini am Beispiel der Entwicklung der Verbalphrase im Zweitspracherwerb Erwachsener (Italienisch), inwiefern sprach-typologische Entwicklungsperspektiven mit denjenigen von Erwerbsprozessen korreliert und entsprechend erweitert werden können.



Summaries



 

Antje Pillunat, Katrin Schmitz und Natascha Müller

The Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Subject Omissions in Bilingual German/French Children


Research in bilingual first language acquisition has shown that the two languages influence each other. One condition for cross-linguistic influence requires that the grammatical phenomenon in question be situated at the interface between two modules of grammar, the syntax-pragmatics interface in particular. One grammatical domain, which has been discussed extensively within syntactic theory, is the null-subject property of languages like Italian. The null-subject property is regulated in the syntactic component of grammar and the presence/absence of overt subjects is further restricted by discourse-pragmatic factors. French and German, although considered as non-null-subject-languages, both display a certain amount of null subjects. We will show that the presence/absence of overt subjects is not further restricted by pragmatics in these languages, contrary to Italian. Our prediction for bilingual first language acquisition is that we will find evidence for cross-linguistic influence in Italian-German, but not in French-German children. This prediction is borne out by the data. Our general conclusion is that only if syntax and pragmatics interact in such a way that pragmatics further restricts an option already made available by the syntactic component will cross-linguistic influence occur.






 

Gudrun Ziegler

Determiners and Reference Processes In Early L2 Acquisition


To date, processes of early foreign/second language acquisition (eL2) throughout primary education (age 6-10) are not addressed in their own right within the field of SLA research (1). However, recent findings stemming from newer eL2 corpora raise questions about the specific nature of eL2 development as compared to (well documented) adult L2 and (unbalanced) 2L1 acquisition (2). Exploratory studies of the eL2 determiner system (3) as displayed in referential processes in eL2 interaction by the young learners (4) reveal features of the specific quality of eL2 development (referring expressions, determiners) and also point out the need for further studies in the field of situated eL2 learning, in particular as regards questions of methodology as well as on the general level of SLA theory building (5).






 

Ewa Lenart and Clive Perdue

Acquisition of Means for Nominal Reference in Narratives: A Functionalist and Comparative Analysis


This paper proposes to describe the acquisition of various nominal forms by learners of French. It compares the performances in a film-retelling task of groups of 4-year-old and 7-year-old French children, with those of beginning and high intermediate adult learners of L2 French with Polish as their L1. We try to demonstrate that successful acquisition involves not only the formal aspects of the Target Language, but also the ability to use one's linguistic resources appropriately in context.






 

Giuliano Bernini

Lexicalisation Strategies: Typology and Acquisition. The Case of Motion Verbs

Development of motion verbs is explored on the background of Leonard Talmy's 'verb-framed' and 'satellite-framed' language types on the basis of the longitudinal data of second language spontaneous learners of Italian with different first languages. The acquisition process appears to be mainly oriented towards the 'verb-framed' type despite the ambiguous target language input. However the overall orientation of the acquisition process is punctuated by 'satellite-framed' lexical types expressing direction out of a relatum. The 'satellite-framed' lexical types as the learners' autonomous productions are shown to result from the markedness relationships characterizing the direction out of a relatum with respect to the opposite direction. These formations are the basis for a convergence towards the target language ambiguous typology in the lexicalisation of path and deixis. These results allow a better understanding of the ways in which a language may drift away from a 'verb-framed' type of lexicalisation of motion events, showing the contribution of second language studies to questions of theoretical relevance.



 

Labor

Manfred Kern

A World of Joins and Seams. Textual Heterogeneity in the Universal Chronicle of the Middle Ages, as Exemplified by Rudolf von Ems

Universal chronicles of the Middle Ages are conceived as a form of orbis scriptus. By depicting the history of salvation they represent a world existing in a state of process. On the textual level this ambition is reflected in the integration and incorporation of a wide variety of texts, textual types and textual cultures. This essay discusses the phenomenon by taking the Weltchronik of Rudolf von Ems as an example. It analyses the various source texts adapted within the work, starting with incidentia derived from secular histories. Rudolf's work constitutes a 'synthesis of the heterogeneous' (Paul Riceaur), which can be described under various headings, as the universal chronicles bring different historiographical models together, e.g. by uniting the competing Judæo-Christian and Greco-Roman textual cultures. The relationship between the main narrative of salvation history (which essentially follows the biblical account) and the elucidatory and secular-historical excursuses is patterned on the relationship between text and commentary. Furthermore Rudolf's text, like every universal chronicle, is intended for a specific public and therefore takes account of specific pragmatic conditions and modes of aesthetic reception. The supposedly unitary ÄBook of the World' is shown to be characterised by a plurality which threatens to rupture the centralising perspective of salvation-history and thereby offers a starting point for the diversified procedures employed for describing and mastering the world in the modern age.




 

 

Eugenio Spedicato

Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Das Versprechen (1958) and Sean Penn's THE PLEDGE (2001). A transmedial analysis

Literaturverfilmung is an area of research that studies the transcodification of the verbal language of literary works to the film language of cinema. This article examines particular aspects of transcodification through a comparison of Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Das Versprechen (1958) and Sean Penn's THE PLEDGE (2001). The aim is to show that interpretierende Transformation (which is neither the exact reproduction of a literary work, nor a rough copy) is the most far-reaching and efficient way to realize the final transmedial product, as in the case of THE PLEDGE. The author analyses the principal transformations, taking into account the inevitable reduction of some narrative paradigms of the novel, which include the re-working of theme and plot and the presentation of character, in particular the hero. The conclusion is that Penn's vision is notably different but that there are, nevertheless, clear references to the moral questions raised by Dürrenmatt. Once again, but this time in an American setting, the rational individual has to contend with evil and the malicious quirks of fate.







 

Heiko Christians

The rejected Bildungsroman. Amuck as Avant-Garde, Genre and Ritual Summary

To 'run amuck': To be in a frenzy to do violence or kill; one man's war; a rampage. Sociologists look at such rampages as evidence of societal conditions and at the actors as beacons that 'bring the buried truths of modern society to light.' Novelists like Stefan Zweig see rampages as a genre and write stories of a character fighting a war for one. Amuck runners contribute to this genre too. Ernst August Wagner wrote a four-year autographical sketch leading up to his rampage in 1919 - an eerie similarity to modern rampages where high school students document their journey to amuck on pc's. But literature is not simply a passive instrument that collects and tells stories; literature also instigates rampages. For Robert Steinhäuser (Erfurt school, 2002, 17 dead) the instigator was the fabled Ninja. Steinhäuser turned his fictional world into real life when he dressed up as a Ninja and ran amuck; at the end of the scene he unmasked. The above mentioned Wagner saw himself as the people's educator in the style of Fichte and Nietzsche. The 'Calgary-Mall-Sniper' in the US fantasized about being Conan. These killers ritualised literature and brought their interpretation full circle to a violent end. This text discusses these various perspectives of running amuck with the thought provoking realisation that in Europe amuck does not exist - at least not for academia and science.







 

Ute Dettmar und Thomas Küpper

Hitting the Right Note in the Mozart Year

The essay compiles cultural-sociological observations on the activities and debates around the Mozart Year 2006. Given the repeatedly expressed criticism of the allegedly tasteless articles with which the merchandising industry is flooding the market on the occasion of Mozart's 250th birthday, the question emerges as to why such a purportedly inappropriate commercialisation of the 'classic' composer so agitates the feature writers of the feuilleton pages. From a cultural sociology perspective, the paradoxical and widespread lament about how popularisation erodes the importance of culture is to be interpreted as an attempt to regain interpretative hegemony and symbolic capital despite the pluralization and de-hierarchization of cultural practices. Ranging from veneration of a figure of high culture to commercialisation, from popular culture appropriation to post-modern strategies, the different approaches to Mozart show how it is precisely this competition that provokes new efforts to distinguish themselves from one another. At the same time, it is this diversity of approaches that - contrary to the decay prognosis of cultural criticism - keeps the 'classic' composer present.